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Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology

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Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology; It is a specialty that
deals with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases caused by invisible
microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi.


Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology

In Kolan Hospital Group Infectious Diseases and
Clinical Microbiology Department; Both polyclinic patients and inpatients
are followed and treated. Our central microbiology laboratory also works
under this department.

In Kolan Hospital Group Central Microbiology
Laboratory, the disease factors are determined by reproducing microorganisms
(bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites) by culture method, imaging them with
direct microscopic examination and by investigating the antibodies formed in
the blood by serological methods, and what are the drugs that can be used
against the agents. Thus, the diagnosis of microbial diseases is made the
fastest and appropriate drug treatments can be initiated in a shorter time.

Another task of our Infectious Diseases and
Clinical Microbiology Department is to develop strategies and take measures to
prevent nosocomial infections in our hospital.

Infectious Diseases and Diseases Followed in Clinical Microbiology Department

Upper respiratory tract

Tonsillitis (tonsillitis)


Flu; It is a disease that affects the
throat, nose and lungs caused by viruses called influenza. It is similar
to many respiratory viral infections such as the common cold and flu. But
unlike them, the flu is more severe and can sometimes lead to hospitalization
and even death. Although the flu is seen in the autumn and winter months,
it is most common in November-March.

The flu is more severe in the following people.

People aged 65 and over

Children under 2 years old

Pregnant women

Those with chronic
respiratory diseases such as asthma and COPD

Those with neurological
diseases such as epilepsy, stroke, etc.

Those with heart disease
such as chronic heart failure, coronary artery disease

Patients diagnosed with

Those with chronic kidney

Cancer treatment

People with a suppressed
immune system such as chronic steroid use, AIDS

Advanced liver disease such
as cirrhosis

Those with blood diseases
such as sickle cell anemia

Younger than 19 years of
age who are on long-term aspirin therapy

Those who are overweight
(Morbidly obese)

Symptoms of the flu are:

Fever and / or chills


Throat ache

Runny or stuffy nose

Severe muscle pain,
malaise, weakness


Spreading Ways of Disease;

Flu viruses (influenza viruses) are most
commonly spread by respiratory tract of droplets formed during cough, sneezing
and sneezing. In this way, sick people can transmit the virus to people at
a distance of about 1.5 meters.

Also, if a person does not wash their hand well
after touching an object with the flu virus and touches their mouth or nose,
they can also catch the virus.

Washing hands frequently with soap and water is
the most important way to prevent contamination. Alcoholic hand
antiseptics are also useful in cases where water and soap are not available. However,
these products should not be used frequently and it should be kept in mind that
they may irritate the skin. Whenever possible, only water and soap should
be used. Frequently touched surfaces (electrical switches, door handles,
computer keyboards, etc.) at home, workplaces and public places should be
cleaned frequently.

Flu; It can sometimes cause bacterial
pneumonia in people with underlying chronic diseases. Therefore, this group of
patients should definitely go to the doctor as soon as they notice symptoms of
flu and apply appropriate treatment options.

The most effective and reliable way to prevent
seasonal flu is to be vaccinated every year with the seasonal flu vaccine. People
of all ages can get the flu vaccine every year from the age of six months. Protection
begins approximately 14 days after vaccination.

Some antiviral drugs, which are used especially for people in the risk group,
are used in the treatment of influenza.


Microbial diseases of the
lung (Pneumonia, Bronchitis, Bronchiolitis)

Cellulitis and similar skin

Shingles and other viral
rash infections

Kiss Disease (Infectious

Tuberculosis occurring in
extrapulmonary organs





Intestinal parasites related


Urinary tract infections

Treatment of sexually
transmitted diseases and screening after suspected intercourse

Viral Hepatitis (Hepatitis
A, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C….)

Hepatitis B;   It occurs with
Hepatitis B Virus (HBV). Acute HBV infection occurs after a person is
infected with HBV. If acute HBV infection lasts longer than six months,
the infection is considered chronic. Chronic infection usually continues
for a lifetime. The best way to prevent hepatitis B is to be vaccinated.

Transmission ways of hepatitis B virus;

By contact with blood and
blood products


With transfer to baby
during pregnancy

Breastfeeding for an
infected mother’s baby

There is also misinformation about the
transmission routes of hepatitis B. Contrary to popular belief, HBV is not
transmitted by eating from the same container, consuming common food or water,
hugging, kissing, shaking hands, coughing, sneezing, using the same toilet,
swimming in the pool, playing with a toy, traveling in the same vehicle.

Symptoms of acute hepatitis B;

Acute Hepatitis B infection can also be passed on without any symptoms. Approximately
70% of adults have symptoms with the disease.

Often in patients;




Nausea and vomiting

Abdominal pain

Dark urine color

Jaundice (yellowing of the
eyes and skin)

Complaints such as joint
pain occur.

There is no specific treatment for Acute Hepatitis B. With bed rest,
adequate fluid and food intake, patients usually recover in 10-15 days. Rarely,
some people may need to be hospitalized.

Before becoming infected with hepatitis B, every baby should be vaccinated with
the HBV vaccine as soon as possible, as soon as possible. If the vaccine
has not been administered in infancy, some blood tests should be performed to
help us understand whether this virus has been met before. If the test
results are suitable, it will be possible to prevent the disease by getting
Hepatitis B vaccine.

Hepatitis B vaccine is safe and effective (provides over 90% protection). As
a vaccination scheme, 2 doses at 1 month intervals and a schedule of 3 doses 6
months after the first dose are administered.  

Chronic Hepatitis BIn people with acute Hepatitis B infection, if the tests
showing immunity do not become positive after 6 months or more; In other words,
if the disease lasts longer than 6 months, Chronic Hepatitis B is mentioned. Chronic
Hepatitis B is a very serious disease. In the long term, it can lead to
serious health problems such as liver disease, liver failure, cirrhosis, liver
cancer and even death.

Chronic Hepatitis B patients should be
followed up by specialist physicians. These patients should go to the
doctor regularly and be controlled by having some blood tests at regular
intervals. Treatment is not required in all chronic Hepatitis B patients. There
are many drug options available for the treatment of chronic Hepatitis B. With
treatment, the disease can be effectively controlled and bad consequences such
as liver failure, cirrhosis or liver cancer can be prevented. Hepatitis B
virus can be controlled with treatment, but it is generally not possible to
completely remove it from the body.

Chronic Hepatitis B patients should avoid alcohol consumption. Before
taking any medication, they should remind the doctor they go to that they are
Hepatitis B carriers.


AIDS; It is a disease caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). HIV
causes a decrease in the immune system cells that provide resistance against
various microorganisms in the body and there is an increase in the possibility
of getting diseases.

Transmission ways of HIV;

Sexual intercourse

Blood / blood products and
objects that have come into contact with them (blood transfusion, syringe)

Transmission to the child
during the mother’s pregnancy and / or breastfeeding.

HIV;   It is not transmitted by hugging, kissing on the cheek,
mosquito bites, or using the patient’s belongings.

Vaccination in adults

Travel medicine

Fever of unknown origin

Intensive care infections

Hospital infections

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