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Prostate Cancer Surgery

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We provide professional support in Prostate Cancer Surgery.



Prostate Cancer Surgery


Prostate; is a small gland resembling a walnut, which
is found as part of the male reproductive system (pelvic). It is located under
the bladder and just in front of the rectum or large bowel.

Prostate gland surrounding the beginning of the
urinary tract secrets the a part of fluid that form semen and so plays a role
in the delivery of the semen.

Generally in the men above 40, hormonal changes occur
related to age and advancing age may cause benign prostate growth. In these
benign prostate growths, genetic factors as well as hormones play a role.

Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer in
men. Due to its slow development, does not give a significant sign and at the
beginning it is limited to prostate gland. While some prostate cancers develop
slowly, some develops rapidly and can spread other organs of the body. If the
prostate cancer can be diagnosed at an early stage without spreading outside
the prostate gland, the chance of success becomes rather high.

Risk Factors:

Although the causes of prostate cancer are not
completely known, some risk factors such as genetic predisposition, race, age
and obesity can cause to the development of prostate cancer.

However, there is no accurately proven factor that
causes prostate cancer, or, in other words, it is not known exactly what causes
prostate cancer.

With the effects of risk factors, mutations occur in
the cells of the prostate gland causing abnormal cells to appear. These cells
are reproduces faster than normal cells and survive when the other cells die.
So, abnormal cells  increasing in number rapidly forms a bulk called
tumor. These abnormal cells can spread to neighbor and distant tissues and
organs using lymph nodes and blood circulation.

Since prostate cancer is at the top of the most common
types of cancer among men, it is important for men routinely to be examined and
checked, especially at middle ages.


The amount of growth in the gland determines the
symptoms of prostate cancer at a large extend. In the early stage, patients do
not have any signs. Or its symptoms can be confused with “benign prostate
growth”. When the growth of the gland progresses and the advanced stages of the
disease are reached, signs and symptoms appear that cause distress in the daily

Among the most common causes of prostate cancer are;

  • Blood in urine or semen
  • Difficulty voiding, weak urine stream
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Difficulty in urinating and pain.
  • Anemia, fatigue
  • Erectile dysfunctions,
  • Bone pains.


As in all other cancer types, prevention of prostate
cancer is also to remove manageable risks or to reduce to minimum.

Since there is no a known factor that causes prostate
cancer, to prevent prostate cancer you should live a healthy life from all
perspectives. For this purpose, to protect ideal body weight, vegetable and
fruit rich healthy diet, to exercise regularly, to avoid from the sedentary
life and to visit your doctor with regular intervals to manage risks apply to
you are among to do.

Your doctor may ask you to visit him/her regularly
with the purpose of screening. In prostate cancer examination of the prostate
gland by finger at regular intervals and analysis of a substance called
prostate specific antigen in your blood that shows the risk of prostate cancer,
helps to diagnose prostate cancer in early stage. As in all other cancer types,
also in prostate cancer early diagnose and treatment increases chance of life.


If a finding that may lead cancer suspect is
determined in the examination of the prostate gland by finger or in PSA test,
your doctor may require advanced tests.

First, information about the prostate gland is
collected by using imaging methods such as ultrasound and multiparametric MR.
If the prostate cancer suspect cannot be eliminated, a biopsy specimen from the
prostate gland is removed in order to establish a definite diagnosis. With this
purpose, a thin needle is inserted into the prostate gland and tissue and cell
samples of the gland are collected and analyzed. Biopsy specimen, if there is
prostate cancer, provides to make definite diagnose and to determine the growth
and spread tendency of cancer cells. With this purpose, pathologists use
Gleason Scoring System. With this scoring system, tumor is given a score between
2 to 10. While 2 shows low aggressiveness,10 is the highest aggressiveness


The most appropriate treatment method is determined
after the collection of all information related with patient and tumor. In the
assessment of the alternative treatments, not only benefits, but also the side
effects and risks are considered.

The identification stage and extent of the prostate
cancer, plays a major role in determining the treatment method to be applied.

Generally cancer phases are symbolized with Roman
numbers I to IV . The phase IV is the last phase and the most severe cancer.
Treatment is planned specific to person regarding the phase, age, general
health condition and personal preferences.

Your doctor defines treatment level according to the
progression level of the disease, your general health condition and severity of
the symptoms. Active follow-up may be recommended, if the growth in the
prostate gland is thought to be low risk for prostate cancer. There will be no
intervention and healthy lifestyle recommendations will be advised (healthy
nutrition, reaching and maintaining ideal body weight, regular exercise, avoid
alcohol and special recommendations for you).

Except this, prior to applying surgical methods,
hormone therapy, chemotherapy, radiotherapy etc. are applied according to the
condition of the disease. 

Treatment methods of the prostate cancer include
chemotherapy, target-oriented therapy, radiotherapy and surgery. While these
treatments used to cure tumor, in advanced stages can be used to increase
quality of life and to ease the severity of the symptoms.. Moreover, the
treatment options can be used together or alone.


Chemotherapy uses drugs to cure cancer. The active
ingredients in these drugs kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy drugs can be
administered intravenously or via the oral route. If the drug is administrated
through vein, a thin tube, called a catheter, is inserted into a large vein and
chemotherapy drug is delivered from this catheter throughout the course of the

One or more chemotherapy medicines may be administered
according to the response of the cancer to the treatment and type of cancer.
After chemotherapy was given for a certain period, treatment break is given.
After the completion of this defined “break” period, treatment resumes. Each of
these periods is called cycle.

In early stage cancers, both to develop surgical
results and to increase survival rate, chemotherapy can be started before the
surgery or with surgery.

Side effects of chemotherapy are secondary to the
chemotherapeutic agent and dose. Most common side effects seen in chemotherapy
drugs include; malaise, nausea, vomiting, mouth sores, hair loss and
inflammation in the digestive system. Side effects caused by chemotherapy will
also be treated by your doctor. In case of the side effects become severe to
threaten your health, your doctor may advise to suspend the treatment or to
take another chemotherapy medicine.

Hormone therapy

Since testosterone hormone plays a major role in the growth
of prostate cells, drugs may stop testosterone production of the body or to
decrease the testosterone level testicles can be removed (orchiectomy).


Radiation therapy aims to kill cancer cells by using
high-powered energy beams.

If the radiation source is out of the body and beams
are directed to cancer, this treatment is called external radiotherapy.
 On the other hand, if the radioactive agent is put into the area that
cancer is present by a needle or catheter, method is called internal radiotherapy

Although radiation therapy can also be used as first
order therapy of cancer, generally it is used to kill cells that are not
removed by surgery. In first order treatment, mostly radiotherapy and
chemotherapy are administered together and this treatment is also known as

The side effects of radiotherapy take place in a very
wide range depending on the body region where the radioactive rays are
transmitted. Urological symptoms such as pain while urinating, needing to
urinate more often and needing to rush to the toilet, as well as sexual
dysfunctions such as erectile dysfunction, and rectal problems such as pain or
soft stools during evacuating the bowel may also be encountered. The risks
apply to you will be explained by your doctor.


In stages where cancer is limited to prostate gland,
the most appropriate treatment is surgical removal of the prostate gland and
surrounding tissue and lymph nodes. In this surgery called radical
prostatectomy, open method, laparoscopy or robotic method can be used.

Open radical prostatectomy: your doctor to remove the prostate
gland, will make an incision between the scrotum and the anus on the anterior
wall of the abdomen in the light of the pre-operative examinations. Additionally,
neighboring lymph nodes to the prostate gland is also removed. Depending on the
findings monitored during surgery, the same incision may be used or a separate
incision may be required to remove the lymph nodes.

Laparoscopic prostatectomy: Small incisions are made on the
skin of the abdomen. From one of these incisions, a tube with a camera on the
tip and with a light source and is inserted, while from the other incision
laparoscopic surgical instruments to be used during surgery are inserted into
the abdomen. Prostate gland and lymph nodes are removed.

Robotic Surgery: After the small incisions made on
the skin of the abdomen, the camera and the surgical instruments were inserted
into the abdomen, surgeon performs the surgery by using robotic arms.

Pelvic lymphadenectomy: In the prostate cancer cases, in
addition to the prostate gland removal, it is routinely performed. Purpose is
to removal of the lymph nodes of pelvic area. By analyzing lymph nodes, spread
and aggressiveness of the cancer is examined.

Cryosurgery: With this method which can be applied in some
centers, it is aimed to kill some healthy cells and tissues around the prostate
gland and cancer cells by cooling and heating the prostate gland rapidly by
inserting small needles into the prostate gland with the help of ultrasound.

Your doctor will decide which method is proper for you according to your
general health condition, your age and then inform you. Radical prostatectomy
surgery carries risks of urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction. All of
your questions regarding the complications you may encounter will be answered
by your doctor in detail. Asking your questions about, treatment of the
prostate cancer, post-treatment life, rehabilitation, pain management, clinical
studies and prostate cancer to your doctor; will help you to take part in
treatment with more information and will ease your concerns.

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About Us

Corporate DetailsSince 1992, Medicana Health Group sustains its progression on the way to determine the standards of future healthcare services. Today, Medicana Health Group, which carries on its activities especially in Istanbul and Ankara, constantly provides the most advanced healthcare services in all aspects of health in Konya, Samsun, Sivas and Bursa through its 12 hospitals and 6500 employees on average. Medicana Health Group not only pioneered the development of health tourism in our country, it also became one of the important centers in treatment of international patients in multidisciplinary healthcare. In order to provide sustainable healthcare services, many offices have been established at important locations of the world..

At hospitals of Medicana Health Group; healthcare services, which are fully compatible with the Service Quality Standards of the Ministry of Health and accreditation standards of the Joint Commission International (JCI), are provided in the equal quality with the world’s leading institutions, through its principle based on patient safety and efficient and quality patient care and treatment.

Medicana Health Group, which aims to provide healthcare services to every segment of society at international standards, increases the patient satisfaction with its transparent, reliable and compassionate approach for the patients, and thus, the Group has been regarded as one of the most valuable brands in our country and has received the title of the health institution mostly preferred by the patients, through its quality in healthcare services.

The primary aim of Medicana Health Group is to be a healthcare facility that continuously improves its productivity through its vision “closely following the most advanced and leading infrastructures and developments”. In addition, it aims to follow the development of healthcare services in Turkey and in the world and to adopt the internationally recognized methods and practices and offer these methods and practices to patients.

Medicana International Istanbul (February 20, 2010), Medicana International Ankara (February 27, 2010), Medicana Camlıca (October 27, 2007) and Medicana Bahcelievler (May 22, 2008) are JCI-accredited hospitals, and Medicana Avcılar Hospital is a member of American Society for Quality and Medicana Kadıkoy Hospital (October 2017).

Medicana Health Group is a member of the Association of Private Hospitals and Medical Institutions. It is awarded the status of baby-friendly hospital by UNICEF and the World Health Organization.We wish a healthy, quality and good life.

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