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Colon Cancer Surgery

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We provide professional support in Colon Cancer Surgery.



Colon Cancer Surgery


Large intestine (colon) and rectum form the final part
of the digestive system. The sigmoid colon – the last part of the large
intestine that measures 1.5 meters in total length – continues with rectum that
is the 20-cm segment of the colon before anus. When the foods digested in the
stomach and the small intestine reach the large intestine, the nutrients, water
and minerals that the body need are absorbed and the remaining part is stored
to be excreted from the anus.

Colon cancer is a type of cancer that originates from
cells of the colon, while rectal cancer develops in cells of the rectum. These
two types of cancer are usually referred to as colorectal cancers.

It is among the most common cancers both in our
country and worldwide. Most cases occur in people older than 50 and the
incidence does not significantly vary between men and women.

Colorectal cancers usually occur in the form of polyp,
a growth of colonic mucosa into lumen of colon. Even though not all polyps
transform into cancer, they should be removed or followed due to the risk of
converting into cancer.

If it is diagnosed in the early stage, the disease can
be successfully treated.

Risk Factors:

There are many factors that determine the risk of
colon cancer. The major ones are listed below:

  • Age (incidence increase at or above 50),
  • History of colorectal cancer or polyp,
  • Inflammatory bowel diseases (Ulcerative Colitis, Crohn’s Disease),
  • Family history of colon cancer and genetic predisposition,
  • Eating red meat and processed meats too much,
  • Diet low in fiber and rich in fat,
  • Diabetes, obesity,
  • Inactive life (sedentary lifestyle)
  • Smoking,
  • Alcohol



Most patients cannot recognize symptoms of the early
stage colon cancer. However, various symptoms may occur in advanced stages
depending on stage, size and location of the cancer. Common symptoms of the
colon cancer are as follows:

  • Rectal bleeding or blood in stool
  • Changes in bowel habits (diarrhea or constipation)
  • Changes in consistency of the stool
  • Stool thinner than usual
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Feeling that bowel does not empty completely
  • Abdominal cramp, gas or pain
  • Chronic tiredness and fatigue
  • Nausea, vomiting


As is the case for all other cancers, prevention of
colon cancer is also to eliminate or minimize manageable risks. Studies revealed
out that healthy eating (fibrous foods, fresh fruits and vegetables with green
leaves) plays an important role in the prevention of the colon cancer. The
principle components of a healthy life, including but not limited to avoiding
tobacco and tobacco products, regular exercise, avoiding consumption of alcohol
and maintenance of optimal body weight are important in preventing colon cancer
as well as all other cancers.

However, an important prevention strategy is to
determine the best personalized screening method for high-risk people in a
doctor visit.


Regular screening should be started at a particular
age (50 years) to diagnose colon cancer in the early stage. Chance of treatment
is very high in early stage colon cancer. Therefore, the principal objective
should be discovering the disease before onset or in early stage.

Mucosa of colon can be examined with colonoscopy due
to presence of symptoms that lead to colon cancer suspect and suspicious areas
can be biopsied in the examination. In a colonoscopy, your doctor can visualize
the entire colon, ranging from the distal end of the small intestines to the
rectum, and the rectum using the colonoscope, a flexible tube equipped with a
camera, on a screen that is available in the colonoscopy room. If a lump or
polyp is visualized, provisional diagnosis is made. At the same time, polyps
can be removed in the colonoscopy.

There is no blood test that definitely points to colon
cancer, excluding tumor marker assays that are used to quantify the risk of colon
cancer. However, blood tests can be ordered to clarify the underlying cause of
complaints, such as chronic fatigue and tiredness. Again, a positive fecal
occult blood test that is ordered to investigate cause of anemia will
necessitate colonoscopy.

Barium enema examination is an imaging method that is
used for diagnosis, although it is not as reliable as colonoscopy.


After the diagnosis of colonc cancer is made, the next
step is to determine the stage. Your doctor will determine stage (I to IV) of
your cancer based on a set of very strict criteria.  You may think that
colonc cancer is very broadly staged as local, limited or regional and distant.

Cancer stages are usually symbolized with Roman
numbers I to IV. Stage IV is the most advanced stage of cancer. A personalized
treatment is planned for each patient by considering stage, age, general health
status and personal preferences.

Among the treatment options of the colon cancer are
chemotherapy, targeted treatment, radiotherapy and surgery. These treatments
can directly be used to treat the tumor or they are instituted to increase
quality of life and relieve symptoms in advanced stage cancers. Moreover,
treatment options can be used alone or in combination.


Chemotherapy uses drugs to treat the cancer. The
active substances of drugs kill the cancerous cells. Chemotherapeutic agents
can be given into a vein or be taken by mouth. In case of intravenous
administration, a thin tube, called catheter, is inserted into a great vein and
the chemotherapeutic agent is administered through this catheter throughout the
treatment period.

One or more than one chemotherapeutic agent can be
administered depending on the type of cancer and response to treatment. Active
chemotherapy maintained for a particular time is followed by an “off” period.
After the “off” period expires, the treatment resumes. Each of these sequential
active and “off” periods is called a cycle.

In the early stage colon cancers, chemotherapy may be
started before or after the surgery in order to both improve outcomes of
surgery and enhance the survival rates.

Side effects of the chemotherapy are a function of the
chemotherapeutic agent and the dose. Most common side effects of
chemotherapeutics include; fatigue, nausea, vomiting, mouth sores, hair loss
and inflammation of the digestive system. Side effects caused by chemotherapy
will also be treated by your doctor. If these side effects are severe enough to
threaten your health, your doctor may advise to suspend the treatment or to switch
you to another chemotherapeutic agent.

Targeted Therapy

Targeted therapies are newer anti-cancer treatments
compared to chemotherapy. These medicines target specific abnormalities that
are present in cancerous cells. Before these medicines are started, cancer
cells are first analyzed in laboratories to determine whether they have
particular mutations or not.


Radiation therapy aims to kill cancer cells by using
high-powered energy beams.

If the radiation source is out of the body and the beams
are directed to cancer, this treatment is called external radiotherapy.
 On the other hand, if the radioactive agent is placed at the locus of the
tumor through a needle or a catheter, method is called internal radiotherapy

Although radiation therapy can be the first-line
treatment, it is usually used to kill cells that cannot be removed operatively.
In the first-line treatment, radiotherapy is mostly combined with chemotherapy
and this modality is also called chemoradiotherapy.

Radiotherapy has a very wide spectrum of side effects
depending on the body part irradiated. The risks that apply to you will be
explained by your doctor.


Minimally invasive surgery is the first choice for
small tumors like polyps.

On a routine colonoscopy or colonoscopy performed on a
suspicion, very small and early stage tumors and polyps may be removed.

Endoscopic mucosa resection is performed for larger
tumors that are limited to the mucosa. A part of the colonic mucosa is removed
along with the polyp or the tumor.

Minimally invasive surgery is the modality that is
preferred after colonoscopic interventions. Small incisions are made on the
abdominal skin. While a tube equipped with a light source and a camera is
inserted through one of these incisions, other incisions are reserved for
insertion of surgical instruments into the abdominal cavity and the removal of
the operative material.

For colon tumors that involve longer segments, a small
amount of the surrounding healthy tissue is removed along with the tumor. Next,
the non-diseases two ends are anastomosed to each other to ensure continuum of
the large intestine (subtotal colectomy). If it is not possible to stitch two
ends to each other, one end is closed and left in the abdominal cavity, while the
other end is anastomosed to the abdominal skin. This procedure is called
colostomy. Colostomy is usually required for a particular time and it enables
complete healing of surgical wounds. However, if the tumor is located in rectum
very close to the anus, the patient may require to live with a colostomy at the
rest of the life.

If tumor involves a very substantial part of the colon
or it is present in both right and left colon, the option is total colectomy –
removal of entire colon- and the distal end of the small intestine is stitched
to the rectum (ileorectal anastomosis).

A surgical procedure can be planned for colon cancer
that already spread to other organs in order to relieve symptoms.

Even if a part of the colon is operatively removed due
to colon cancer, development of a polyp in the remaining colonic segments is
always likely. Therefore, you need to visit your doctor at pre-determined
intervals in order to have postoperative development of new colorectal polyps
be followed up.

Asking your questions about the treatment of colon and
rectum cancer, your life after treatment, rehabilitation, pain management,
clinical studies and all the questions in your mind about the colon and rectum
cancer to your doctor will help you for an informed participation to your
treatment and alleviating your concerns.


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About Us

Corporate DetailsSince 1992, Medicana Health Group sustains its progression on the way to determine the standards of future healthcare services. Today, Medicana Health Group, which carries on its activities especially in Istanbul and Ankara, constantly provides the most advanced healthcare services in all aspects of health in Konya, Samsun, Sivas and Bursa through its 12 hospitals and 6500 employees on average. Medicana Health Group not only pioneered the development of health tourism in our country, it also became one of the important centers in treatment of international patients in multidisciplinary healthcare. In order to provide sustainable healthcare services, many offices have been established at important locations of the world..

At hospitals of Medicana Health Group; healthcare services, which are fully compatible with the Service Quality Standards of the Ministry of Health and accreditation standards of the Joint Commission International (JCI), are provided in the equal quality with the world’s leading institutions, through its principle based on patient safety and efficient and quality patient care and treatment.

Medicana Health Group, which aims to provide healthcare services to every segment of society at international standards, increases the patient satisfaction with its transparent, reliable and compassionate approach for the patients, and thus, the Group has been regarded as one of the most valuable brands in our country and has received the title of the health institution mostly preferred by the patients, through its quality in healthcare services.

The primary aim of Medicana Health Group is to be a healthcare facility that continuously improves its productivity through its vision “closely following the most advanced and leading infrastructures and developments”. In addition, it aims to follow the development of healthcare services in Turkey and in the world and to adopt the internationally recognized methods and practices and offer these methods and practices to patients.

Medicana International Istanbul (February 20, 2010), Medicana International Ankara (February 27, 2010), Medicana Camlıca (October 27, 2007) and Medicana Bahcelievler (May 22, 2008) are JCI-accredited hospitals, and Medicana Avcılar Hospital is a member of American Society for Quality and Medicana Kadıkoy Hospital (October 2017).

Medicana Health Group is a member of the Association of Private Hospitals and Medical Institutions. It is awarded the status of baby-friendly hospital by UNICEF and the World Health Organization.We wish a healthy, quality and good life.

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