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Temporomandibular Joint Disorders and Treatment

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Temporomandibular Joint Disorders and Treatment


Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) connects the mandible to
the skull. The diseases involve the joint and masticatory muscles. It is very
common in population and more frequent in woman. Usually people affected are
between 20 and 40 years old.


What are the symptoms of TMJ disorder?

  • Pain and difficulty during jaw movement Orofacial
    pain especially around ear, temple or cheek, occasionally tinnitus
    headache, neck pain
  • Joint noises like clicking, popping Locked jaw,
    dislocated jaw
  • Continuous tension and fatigue of jaw Feeling
    that the teeth do not meet together properly Swelling and asymmetrical

Having one of more symptoms listed above can be a sign
of TMJ disorder.

Genetics, trauma, bad habits like teeth clenching or
grinding, malocclussion (problematic upper and lower teeth contact), stress or
degeneration, hormones, inflammation, neoplasia can be the causes of TMJ

What are the TMJ diseases?

  • Disc displacement resulting in restricted jaw
    opening, noises or gliding of mandible Displacement of jaw Aplasia,
  • Hiperplasia or neoplasia of the joint
    Inflammatory diseases like synovitis, arthritis, poliarthritis
    Osteoarthritis and later ankylosis (ossification of the joint resulting in

The diagnosis is got after a thorough clinical and
radiological examination and the proper treatment can be planned.

Non-surgical treatment includes muscle excersizes,
medication when indicated, and mechanical treatment which aim at providing
correct occlusial relations. Splints (thin transparent molds) are made
individually. They relieve the symptoms and show the necessity of adjustment
and reorganizing of occlusion.

Problems are defined by the dentist and treated by a
prosthetic or orthodontic approach. Severe cases are treated surgically.

Patients under therapy should avoid extreme moves and
eliminate the stress factor with psychiatric help if necessary.

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