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Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases

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We provide professional support in Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases.


Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases

Diseases and treatments served in Endocrine and
Metabolic Diseases Department;

  • Diabetes (Diabetes Mellitus)
  • Obesity (overweight)
  • Thyroid diseases
  • Parathyroid diseases
  • Pituitary diseases
  • Adrenal gland (adrenal gland) diseases
  • Hormonal diseases of testicle and ovary
  • Hirsutism (excessive hair growth),
  • Osteoporosis and other metabolic bone diseases
  • Lipid metabolism diseases


Diabetes (Diabetes Mellitus)

Diabetes mellitus (diabetes) or diabetes is a
metabolic disorder that is usually caused by a combination of hereditary and
environmental factors and results in increased blood glucose (sugar) levels

Diabetes occurs either with low or no insulin production (Type 1 diabetes) or
resistance to the effect of insulin (Type 2 diabetes) or during pregnancy
(gestational diabetes). Deterioration of vision, unexplained weight loss
or weight gain, fatigue and changes in energy metabolism are other symptoms of
diabetes. Injecting insulin with syringes, insulin pumps or insulin pens
is the most basic treatment method of Type 1 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is
kept under control by using exercise, lifestyle changes, diet,
antihyperglycemic (sugar-lowering) drugs and insulin supplements or a
combination of them.

Symptoms of Diabetes

Diabetic patients often have the following

  • Excessive thirst and dry mouth
  • Don’t drink a lot of water
  • Urinating a lot
  • Weight loss
  • Excessive appetite and overeating
  • Blurred vision
  • Weakness, tiredness
  • Skin infections
  • Wounds that do not heal

Diabetes can be in anyone but;

  • Familial Diabetes history (parents or children)
  • Obesity (Body Mass Index> 27 kg / m²)
  • Constant lack of physical activity
  • Those with a prior diagnosis of Impaired Glucose Tolerance
  • Women with a history of gestational diabetes or who gave birth to a child over 4 kg.
  • Those with hypertension (> 140/90 mmHg)
  • Those with polycystic ovary syndrome are at higher risk.


Acute Complications of Diabetes

Failure to control blood sugar creates health
problems in the short and long term. Diabetes can cause some damage to
small and large vessels and nerves. These damages are called complications.

There are fast-developing and life-threatening
situations in diabetes. If these are not treated quickly and correctly,
they can result in death.

Low sugar (hypoglycemia) When the

blood sugar is too low (as a result of too much medication, too much exercise
or insufficient energy intake), the person cannot perform normal functions. Hypoglycemia
quickly improves with sugary fruit juice, cut or granulated sugar.

Ketoacidosis Ketoacidosis,

also called diabetic coma, is a severe condition due to the absence of insulin. It
is mainly common in people with type 1 diabetes.

Nonketotic hyperosmolar coma Occurs

as a result of excessive glucose accumulation in the body. It especially
affects people with type 2 diabetes who are not able to drink enough fluids.

Chronic Complications of

If the sugar stays high in the blood for a long
time, it destroys the large and small vessels and problems related to the
damage can be seen in which organ.

Cardiovascular diseases

Diabetes is one of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The
risk of heart failure, heart attack and sudden death is increased 5 times in
diabetic patients. In addition, it may cause malnutrition in the veins,
especially in the congestion of the leg veins.

Eye involvement (retinopathy) The

main cause of blindness in adults between the ages of 20-74 is diabetes. The
reason for this problem is that diabetic patients are 25 times more likely to
be blind compared to normal people. A regular and detailed eye examination
is as important as blood sugar control in diabetic patients.

Kidney involvement (nephropathy)

is a huge threat to diabetic patients. Severe kidney disease that may
require dialysis and / or kidney transplantation may develop in 40% of patients
with poor glucose control.

Nerve involvement (neuropathy)

develops in about 50% of people with diabetes. It can lead to loss of
sensation in the hands and feet, leading to vascular occlusions, foot wounds
and leg cuts. Unfortunately, the most common cause of hand and foot loss
after accidents is diabetes. Nervous involvement can also lead to sexual
impotence in people with diabetes.

The Importance of Diabetes

It is recommended to use fasting blood glucose
widely for type 2 diabetes screening. Because; Many people who meet
the criteria for diabetes diagnosis are unaware of their illness. (awareness
rate is 50%). It has been suggested in community studies that type 2
diabetes can exist for up to 10 years before diagnosis. Up to 50% of
patients with type 2 diabetes have one or more diabetic complications at the
time of diagnosis. Early diagnosis and treatment of diabetes can reduce
the course of the disease and the development of complications. For this
reason, it is recommended that every individual over the age of 45 should be
screened every 3 years and those with additional risk factors at an earlier age.

Diabetes Treatment

There is no treatment method that eliminates
diabetes. If good support can be obtained from the diabetes team
consisting of doctors, dieticians and diabetes nurses, and if the
recommendations are followed, a healthy and active life can be maintained. The
aim of treatment is to try to keep blood sugar levels close to normal and to
prevent excessive highs and lows. Diabetes treatment has three main
components; nutritional therapy, exercise, and medication.

Thyroid Diseases

The thyroid gland is a small organ located just
in front of our neck. Average size of the thyroid gland; It is 4-4.5
cm and its weight is 20-30 gr. is around.


Although the space it occupies in the body is
small, the functions it controls in our body are quite numerous. Adjustment
of body temperature and basal metabolism, weight balance, effects on
cardiovascular system and heart rate and contraction power, bowel movements and
digestion speed, bone cycle and bone formation, perception and cognitive
process, memory, fat and carbohydrate metabolism and menstrual order It is
adjusted by the effect of thyroid hormones in hormonal situations such as
sexual desire.

The thyroid gland provides these functions with
the thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) secreted into the blood, and the hormone TSH
(thyroid stimulating hormone) secreted from the center called the pituitary
gland also regulates thyroid hormone secretion.

Disease and Symptoms

In the case of the disease of an organ with so
many functions, problems with different signs and symptoms occur in the whole

Hypothyroidism: The condition in which the thyroid
gland works less than normal and releases less hormones is called
‘Hypothyroidism’. The signs and symptoms of this disease are due to the
decrease in body metabolism and the functions of almost all organs are slowed
down. In hypothyroidism, slowing in the whole body, fatigue, fatigue,
increased sleep, forgetfulness, depression, clumsiness, weight gain, slow
movement, cold intolerance, dry skin, constipation, widespread body pain, hair
loss, broken nails, menstrual irregularity and decreased sexual intercourse.
complaints such as desire are seen.

Hyperthyroidism: The condition in which the thyroid
gland works more than normal and releases more hormones is called
‘Hyperthyroidism’. Symptoms and signs seen in hyperthyroidism depend on
the acceleration of body metabolism and the functions of almost all organs are
accelerated. In hyperthyroidism, complaints such as insomnia,
palpitations, nervousness, weakness, heat intolerance, tremors in the hands,
diarrhea, hair loss, broken nails, menstrual irregularity, and prominence in
the eyes can be seen.

Thyroid Nodule: Another common thyroid
disease is thyroid nodule. If there is a lump in the thyroid gland, it is
called a thyroid nodule. Nodules have three important features for the
patient and the doctor. The first and most important feature is whether
the nodule is cancer or not. The second feature is whether the nodules or
nodules work autonomously, that is, they work independently, causing excessive
hormone production and a disease called hyperthyroidism. The third feature
is whether it puts pressure on the trachea, which is encountered in large
nodules. All these problems can be easily diagnosed by physical
examination, laboratory and imaging methods.

Treatment Methods

It is possible to obtain satisfactory results
with early diagnosis and treatment in thyroid disorders, which are very common
in countries where iodine deficiency is common, such as our country. For
this reason, everyone who has signs and symptoms of thyroid disease, especially
those who live in an area with iodine deficiency or who do not get enough
iodine, and people with frequent thyroid disease in their family, should
definitely apply to Endocrinology clinics and have their thyroid checks.

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