We provide professional support in Neurology.
In the neurology department of Reyap Hospital, diagnosis and treatment of adult
and pediatric brain-nerve muscle diseases are carried out using clinical
experience and the latest technological developments.
Neurologists manage and treat neurological conditions or
problems of the nervous system. Patients usually visit a neurologist in the
presence of the following symptoms; coordination problems, muscle weakness,
emotional changes, confusion, confusion, dizziness, and sensory problems such
as touch, vision, or smell. Some of the most common diseases and conditions
treated in the neurology clinic;
Dizziness and balance disorders
Parkinson’s and movement disorders
Nerve and muscle diseases
Cerebrovascular diseases (stroke) can be prevented,
especially if they are treated within minutes and hours after they occur. In
our 24-hour stroke center, emergency treatment is performed and patients are
followed up with neurological intensive care and rehabilitation follow-ups.
Also, diagnosis and treatment for secondary prevention are made after stroke.
Diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy are done by
preoperative evaluation, long-term video-EEG examination, neuropsychological
evaluation, MR, PET-CT, and SPECT tests.
Intraoperative imaging methods, monitoring, and
prevention of possible diseases are also used.
Neuropsychology Laboratory: EEG, EMG, Transcranial
Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)
Balance Laboratory: Posturography
Sleep Disorders Laboratory
Neurological procedures and tests
During your first appointment to the neurology
department, your medical history is taken, and a physical and neurological
examination is performed. The neurological examination tests muscle strength,
reflexes, and coordination. Because different disorders can have similar
symptoms, your neurologist may need more tests to diagnose. Neurologists can
recommend a variety of procedures to help diagnose or treat a condition.
CT scan combines a series of X-ray images taken from
different angles around your body and create crop-sectional images of bones,
blood vessels, and soft tissue of your body. More detailed results are obtained
from a CT scan than X-rays.
CT has many applications, but it is particularly suitable
for examining people quickly after trauma such as traumas after car accidents.
CT scanning is important for the diagnosis of neurological disease as well as
for planning surgery or radiation therapy.
MRI is a non-invasive way for your doctor to examine your
organs, tissues, and skeletal system. It allows obtaining high-resolution
images of the inside of the body to help diagnose various problems.
MRI is the most commonly used imaging test in the
diagnosis of brain and spinal cord diseases. The most common diseases and
conditions diagnosed with MRI are;
Aneurysms of cerebral vessels
Eye and inner ear disorders
Trauma-related brain damage
A special type of MRI is functional MRI (fMRI) of the
brain. It produces images of blood flow to specific areas of the brain. It can
be used to study the anatomy of the brain and determine which parts of the
brain perform critical functions. This helps identify important areas of
language and movement control in the brains of people considered for brain
surgery. Functional MRI can also be used to assess the damage caused by a head
injury or disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease.
PET scan is an imaging test that helps reveal how your
tissues and organs are working. PET scanning involves the use of a radioactive
drug to show this activity. This scan sometimes allows diagnosis before
symptoms of the disease appear.
The tracer can be
injected, swallowed, or inhaled, depending on the organ or tissue being
examined. The tracker gathers in areas of your body with a higher chemical
activity that usually corresponds to the disease areas. These areas appear as
bright spots on a PET scan.
PET scanning is useful in detecting or evaluating a variety of conditions, including many
cancers, heart diseases, and neurological disorders. Usually, it is combined
with CT and MRI to increase the diagnostic value and create a treatment program.
TMS is a technique of applying magnetic pulses to the
brain through a coil. An electric current is transmitted to the coil placed in
the head, which causes an electric current in the brain. Different types of
coils are used to reveal different magnetic field patterns and the dosage is
increased to stimulate deeper areas of the brain.
TMS is used as a diagnostic tool by using it to map behavioral circuits with spatial and
temporal precision, and as a therapeutic tool as it can lead to permanent
changes in brain function.
Diseases and conditions that can be treated with TMS;
Ringing in the ears (tinnitus)
Besides, stroke rehabilitation can be done.
Your doctor decides on the placement of the coil and the dose to be applied according to your
needs. You need to stay awake and alert during the 40-minute session. You may
feel some discomfort in the scalp for a short time during and after
treatment.TMS is an outpatient method that is non-invasive and does not require
anesthesia. There is no recovery period after treatment and you can go directly
to your home.
EMG measures the electrical activity between the brain or
spinal cord and the peripheral nervous system. This nerve is located in your
arms and legs and is responsible for muscle tone during movement and rest
times. EMGs can help your neurologist diagnose spinal cord disease as well as
general muscle or nerve dysfunction.
During this test, the neurologist places small electrodes in your muscles to help measure
activity during periods of movement and rest. During EMG recording, nerve
conduction velocity (NCV) recording is usually taken. While EMG measures muscle
activity, NCV evaluates your nerves’ ability to send the necessary signals that
control these muscles.
In total, the average EMG/NCV combination test can take approximately 1 hour or longer. The
patients should avoid stimulants such as caffeine and nicotine for a few hours
before the test because of the possibility of affecting the results.
With electrodes placed on your scalp, EEG measures
electrical activity in the brain. It is used to help diagnose brain conditions
such as infections, tumors, and injuries, as well as seizures and psychiatric
Unlike EMG, EEG usually doesn’t cause any discomfort. Since electrodes in the scalp measure
small changes in the brain, doctors make some changes in the environment to
measure brain signals such as different lighting or sounds.
You should avoid stimulants on test day, just like EMG. The EEG procedure takes about an hour
and sometimes the test is done while you are asleep.
Posturography is a test battery used to measure postural
control in static or dynamic conditions. It is used to measure central nervous
system adaptive mechanisms that are involved in balance control during both
standing still and different movements.
Due to the complex interactions in the brain regarding posture and balance, many situations are
created in posturography, including the eyes open or closed, and the mobile or
immobile platform on which the patient stands, and the source of the problem
that causes balance and posture problems is investigated.
Our neurocognitive lab is a world-class research center
designed to study major changes in the brain and behavior during lifelong
learning. Research assistants conduct studies using neuroscience, psychology,
education, and computer science tools.
Our laboratory has a modern technological infrastructure
including EEG, eye/head tracking, virtual reality (VR), and functional
near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS).
The projects we carry out in our laboratory include:
Developing VR-based learning environments and assessments
Developing diagnostic tools to help schools identify
students with autism
Working to improve functional assessments of people with
Alzheimer’s disease or dementia
Our sleep disorders lab performs comprehensive tests to
diagnose sleep disorders. Sleep disorders are analyzed by recording your brain
waves, blood oxygen levels, heart rate, breathing, and eye and leg movements
during sleeping. It also allows your doctor to adjust your treatment plan if
you have previously been diagnosed with a sleep disorder.
In our lab, sleep stages and cycles are monitored to determine if or when your sleep patterns are
disturbed and why. The patient may recommend this assessment if the doctor
suspects one of these diseases;
Sleep apnea or another sleep-related breathing disorder
Restless leg syndrome
REM sleep behavior disorder
Unexplained chronic insomnia