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Internal diseases (internal medicine)

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We provide professional support in  internal diseases (internal medicine).


Internal diseases (internal medicine)

Internal medicine is a discipline that forms the basis of all clinical branches. Kolan
Hospital Group, in the Internal Medicine Department, with the help of doctors
and related health personnel specialized in their field, advanced diagnosis and
treatment methods and advanced medical technologies; It is aimed to
provide the most appropriate and effective health service to the person.

Department of Internal Medicine; It maintains an innovative service
approach that has developed as a center that includes outpatient clinic
examinations, inpatient treatments, pre-operative preparations and necessary
interventions, emergency service and check-up.

Internal medicine is a
branch of science that consists of 6 main sections.

Endocrinology (Hormone Diseases)

Gastroenterology (Digestive System Diseases)

Rheumatology (Rheumatic Diseases)

Nephrology (Kidney Diseases and Hypertension)

Hematology (Blood Diseases)

Oncology (Benign Tumors and Cancer Diseases)

In addition, the Department of Internal Medicine applies a “Comprehensive
Geriatric Assessment Program” for elderly individuals. When
necessary, consultations are made with relevant specialties such as neurology,
psychiatry, orthopedics, eye, ear, nose and throat, physical therapy.



Diabetes mellitus (diabetes) or diabetes is a metabolic disorder that is
usually caused by a combination of hereditary and environmental factors and
results in increased blood glucose (sugar) levels (hyperglycemia).

Diabetes occurs either with low or no insulin production (Type 1 diabetes)
or resistance to the effect of insulin (Type 2 diabetes) or during pregnancy
(gestational diabetes). Deterioration of vision, unexplained weight loss
or weight gain, fatigue and changes in energy metabolism are other symptoms of
diabetes. Injecting insulin with syringes, insulin pumps or insulin pens
is the most basic treatment method of Type 1 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is
kept under control by using exercise, lifestyle change, diet, antihyperglycemic
(sugar-lowering) drugs and insulin supplements or a combination of them.

Diabetes itself and the treatment methods used in diabetes can lead to
many complications. If the disease is not well controlled and monitored,
immediate complications such as hyperglycemia, ketoacidosis or nonketotic
hyperosmolar (Diabetic coma) may develop. The main (chronic) complications
of the disease that occur in the long term are; circulatory system (heart,
cardiovascular) diseases (such as hypertension, heart failure and
atherosclerosis diseases, vascular occlusion), chronic renal failure
(nephropathy), retinal damage that can cause blindness (retinopathy), various
types of nerve damage (peripheral neuropathy), delayed wound healing and
microvascular disorders that cause impotence (sexual problems, lack of sexual
desire, etc.).



There are many hormones that regulate the healthy functioning of our body
and organs that secrete them. Endocrinology examines the diseases caused
by under or overproduction of these hormones.

Major Diseases in This Group Are:

Diabetes (Diabetes)

Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

Thyroid Diseases (Goiter etc.)

Adrenal Gland Diseases

Obesity (Overweight)

Osteoporosis (Bone Restoration)

High cholesterol, high triglycerides


In line with the diagnosis made in the Internal Medicine Department, it
works in cooperation with the departments of high specialization –
endocrinology, nephrology, hematology, gastroenterology, rheumatology,
cardiology, chest diseases, infectious diseases, neurology, all surgical departments,
psychiatry departments, to solve all the health problems of the patient.


Gastrointestinal Disorders

Reflux Disease


Gastritis is a type of inflammation (inflammation) of the gastric mucosa.
It can be acute or chronic. The most common cause of chronic gastritis is
a microbe called Helicobacter pylori (HP).

Stomach ulcer

If gastritis progresses and is not treated, first erosion and then erosion
may deepen and form ulcers on the stomach surface.

Stomach Bleeding



Colitis (Ulcerative Colitis, Chron)

Constipation, Hemorrhoids

Liver Diseases (A, B, C Hepatitis, Cirrhosis, Fatty Liver. Jaundice)

Gallstones and Inflammation

Familial Mediterranean Fever

Pancreatic Inflammation

Cancers (Esophagus, Stomach, Intestine, Liver, Pancreas)

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), commonly known as reflux, is the
backflow of stomach contents (stomach acid, bile) into the esophagus
(esophagus). However, when the reflux recurs at frequent intervals during
the day, when it takes a long time and especially when it occurs during sleep,
there is now pathological reflux. This situation causes a burning
sensation in the chest, which is the typical finding of reflux, and damage to
the esophagus in varying degrees. (erosion and ulcers) In this case,
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) or reflux disease as it is common among
the people is mentioned. In reflux disease that lasts for a long time and
is not treated sufficiently, stenosis may occur at the lower end of the
esophagus, and this situation is seen in approximately 10% of reflux patients. Its
main symptom is swallowing difficulty.

Chronic laryngitis, asthma, and more serious problems that may occur as a
result of stomach contents getting into the respiratory tract are other
complications that can be seen in reflux disease. A serious and silent
complication of gastroesophageal reflux disease is the condition known as
Barrett’s esophagus. The incidence of cancer development in the esophagus
in patients with Barrett’s esophagus is 50 times higher than in the normal
population. People with these symptoms must consult a doctor, be followed
and treated.


Gluten Enteropathy (Celiac Disease)

The small intestine is an important organ where the digestion and
absorption of nutrients take place. Celiac disease, also known as gluten
enteropathy, is a disease that causes impaired digestion and absorption of
nutrients in the intestines. People with celiac disease are susceptible to
‘gluten’, a protein found in wheat, barley, rye and to some extent oats. Since
the digestion and absorption of nutrients will be impaired, diarrhea and the
lack of these substances in the body over time begins. It can lead to
symptoms such as anemia, iron deficiency, diarrhea, bloating or weight loss. When
people with celiac disease are fed with a gluten-free diet, the damage to their
intestines improves, but if they start to consume gluten-containing foods
again, the symptoms of the disease reappear.


Irritable Bowel Syndrome (Spastic Colitis)

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disease with changes
in defecation habits, a feeling of bloating in the abdomen, gas and abdominal


Nausea and Vomiting

When nausea and vomiting are followed by diarrhea, possible causes should
be considered viral gastroenteritis (inflammation of the digestive system). Headache
and fever may accompany. Viral gastroenteritis is the most common cause of
nausea and vomiting in children. This condition usually resolves within
2448 hours. The most important treatment of viral gastroenteritis is to
replace the lost fluid; Therefore, patients are recommended to drink
plenty of “clean” water. In necessary cases, lost fluid and electrolytes
are administered intravenously.

food poisoning


Ulcers, strictures and obstructions in the digestive tract, inflammation in the
pancreas, inflammation and blockages related to the gall bladder and its
tracts, inflammation of the peritoneal membrane, appendicitis.


Myocardial infarction (Heart attack)

Kidney and adrenal gland diseases


Eye diseases

Malignant diseases

Conditions that cause increased intracranial pressure (high blood pressure, cerebral
hemorrhage, brain edema or brain tumor ..)

If not treated, serious fluid loss, electrolyte disturbance, severe weight
loss, loss of consciousness may develop due to the loss of electrolytes
(potassium, chloride, etc.) required in the body.


Inflammatory Bowel Disease

The term inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) includes ulcerative colitis and
Crohn’s disease. Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that
affects the lining of the large intestine. Although Crohn’s disease can
involve all parts of the gastrointestinal system from mouth to anus, it is
mostly located in the last part of the small intestine (terminal ileum) and
large intestine, and unlike ulcerative colitis, it creates an inflammation that
can involve all layers of the intestinal wall. During the active periods
of inflammation, the intestinal lining is red and swollen, ulcerated and

The most common symptoms of UC are diarrhea, urgent defecation, abdominal
pain and rectal bleeding with or without defecation. Some patients may
feel unappetizing, tired and lose weight. Although the bleeding is usually
mild, it can sometimes be severe and anemia may occur. Joint pain,
swelling and redness of the eyes, and liver problems can be seen. These
problems can heal after colitis resolves.


Rheumatological Disorders

Rheumatology generally deals with rheumatic inflammatory diseases and
other musculoskeletal diseases that develop as a result of improper functioning
of the immune system.

Major Diseases

Rheumatoid arthritis

Spondyloarthropathies and ankylosing spondylitis

Behcet ‘s disease

Connective tissue diseases: systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, mixed connective
tissue disease, Sjögren’s syndrome and dermatomyositis, polymyositis

Familial Mediterranean Fever

Acute joint rheumatism

Crystal arthritis (Gout)

Infectious arthritis


Metabolic and degenerative diseases: Diseases such as osteoarthritis, osteoporosis,
osteomalacia and Paget’s disease are among the most common rheumatic diseases.



High blood pressure or hypertension means extremely high blood pressure. Although
normal blood pressure values ​​vary from individual to individual, it should be
at most 130 mm Hg for systolic (high blood pressure) and up to 85 mm Hg for
diastolic (small blood pressure), respectively.

The accepted blood pressure value today is 120/80 mmhg (millimeters of
mercury) in a normal adult at rest.

Blood pressure is high in any person when they are low during sleep,
nervous or excited. Usually the value considered as the upper limit of
normal is 140/90 mmhg (millimeters of mercury).

Hypertension is a major risk factor for heart disease. If left
untreated, it causes an increase in serious disease and mortality rates for
cerebral circulation, heart, vascular and kidney diseases.



Hypercholesterolemia is the presence of high blood cholesterol levels. If
there is too much cholesterol in the blood, it accumulates in the blood vessels
and causes the blood vessels to harden and narrow.


Metabolic Syndrome

Metabolic syndrome is a disease of modern life. The prevalence of
metabolic syndrome, which threatens individuals working in sedentary
environments, is increasing in our country as well as all over the world.

The group most affected by this syndrome is people who sit at a desk, have
irregular nutrition and work under intense stress.

Metabolic syndrome is a condition that increases the likelihood of heart
disease or diabetes as the age progresses. Before the disease occurs, it
is necessary to eliminate the risk factors that cause the disease. Widening
in the waist circumference, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and
borderline elevation in blood sugar are symptoms of metabolic syndrome. If
not intervened in time, it can lead to heart attack, diabetes, stroke and


Thyroid Diseases

They are glands located in two symmetrical parts in the anterior and
posterior parts of the larynx and control body secretions by secreting t3 and
t4 hormones into the blood.

Symptoms of hyperthyroidism are tremors in the hands, irritability,
restlessness, heat resistance, palpitations, muscle weakness and fatigue,
increased bowel movements and sometimes diarrhea, weight loss without dieting,
hair loss, thinning of the skin and broken nails.

Hypothyroidism, on the other hand, usually manifests itself with weakness,
fatigue, depression, growth of the tongue, and drying. In general, weight
gain is one of the biggest problems in patients. Menstrual irregularities
also pose a future problem in women. In addition, an increase in blood
pressure may occur, causing a slowdown in movements and a decrease in
perception. It causes bowel irregularities and often constipation.

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