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Internal diseases (internal)

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Internal diseases (internal)

Internal medicine, also known as internal medicine, is a
branch of medicine that diagnoses internal organ diseases and plans
non-surgical treatments. The department of internal medicine deals with
the structure, function and diseases of all organ systems in the body. Internal
medicine is important because it creates a link between other medical
disciplines. In the light of today’s scientific developments and in line
with a detailed physical examination, early and definitive diagnosis of
diseases has become easier with the necessary modern examinations. For
this purpose, laboratory tests (blood, urine, feces, etc.), radiological
examinations (x-ray, ultrasonography, mammography, computed tomography,
magnetic resonance imaging, bone density measurement, etc.), if necessary,
endoscopic examinations (upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy, colonoscopy,
etc.) .), electrocardiography, A wide variety of methods are used, such as
echocardiography. Evaluation of diseases for all patient groups over the
age of 15 in the general internal medicine or internal medicine clinics of
health institutions; Services are provided for examination, treatment and
follow-up. The diseases treated in the general internal medicine clinic
are listed below.

Upper and lower respiratory tract diseases

Respiratory organs carry the task of breathing air and
serve the gas exchange between air and blood. The upper respiratory tract
consists of the mouth, nasal cavity, sinuses, throat and larynx. The lower
respiratory tract consists of the trachea, pulmonary bronchi, bronchioles and
alveoli. Common upper and lower respiratory tract diseases can be listed
as cold, flu, sinusitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, asthma
and COPD.

Infectious diseases

Infectious diseases; It can be triggered by a
variety of microbial agents such as viruses, bacteria, fungi or
parasites. These diseases can be transmitted in different ways and usually
affect the respiratory tract, digestive system, skin, eyes or ears. In
preventing infectious diseases, it is important to know how the disease is
transmitted and to be vaccinated against them, if any. Today, vaccines
that protect against many infectious diseases have been developed. There
are different treatment options depending on the cause and course of an
infectious disease. For example; Antibiotics are used in the
treatment of bacterial infectious diseases.


Hypertension is a condition in which a person’s blood
pressure is permanently increased. A significant proportion of patients
admitted to the general internal medicine clinic suffer from hypertension. The
limit value for the diagnosis of hypertension is 140/90 mmHg, which is accepted
by the World Health Organization. If the person’s blood pressure is above
these values, it indicates the presence of high blood pressure. Hypertension
often goes undetected over a long period of time. Most patients live with
high blood pressure for a long time without any restrictions or symptoms. This
situation is quite dangerous; Because even slightly elevated blood
pressure over a long period of time damages the vascular system. Especially
those with additional diseases such as high cholesterol, arteriosclerosis,
stroke, heart attack and diabetes have a higher risk in this respect.


Diabetes or diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease
characterized by a consistently elevated blood sugar level. It has two
forms, type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes is common in children and
adolescents. Type 1 diabetes, an autoimmune disease, usually begins before
the age of 20. In autoimmune diseases, the person’s immune system attacks
his own body cells and damages them. Type 2 diabetes, which is more
common, usually occurs after the age of 30. Hereditary factors, overweight
and sedentary lifestyle are factors that contribute to the emergence of type 2

Thyroid diseases

The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped organ located in
the anterior region of the neck. Thyroid hormones have very different
functions in the body. These hormones have effects on metabolism,
circulation, growth and mood. For this reason, thyroid diseases can
manifest with very different symptoms. Two important hormones, T3 and T4,
are produced in the thyroid gland and fed into the bloodstream. The
thyroid gland needs protein and iodine for the production of T3 and T4. Since
iodine is not produced in the body, sufficient iodine intake is essential for
the proper functioning of the thyroid gland. Thyroid diseases can be seen
as insufficient (hypothyroidism) or excessive hormone production

Increase in blood fats such as cholesterol and triglycerides

An increase in blood lipids such as cholesterol and
triglycerides in the blood is called hyperlipidemia. High cholesterol
levels in the blood are called hypercholesterolemia. Hypercholesterolemia
is also a type of hyperlipidemia because cholesterol is also one of the blood
fats. Increase in blood lipids is considered an important risk factor for
arteriosclerosis and therefore cardiovascular diseases. For this reason,
it is important to be treated.

Digestive system diseases such as liver, stomach, and gall bladder

In addition to inflammation and infections, cancers are
among the most common diseases of the digestive system and can occur at any
age. With regular controls in internal medicine or gastroenterology
clinics, many diseases can be detected early and treated without progress. Endoscopy
and colonoscopy examinations are extremely useful in the diagnosis of
esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines and anus region diseases. Hepatitis
is the most common diseases in the liver. Hepatitis is an inflammation
that occurs in liver cells. It is usually caused by viruses and is called
Hepatitis A, B, C. Gallstones are most common in the gallbladder and
treatment is performed by removing the gallbladder.

Lung diseases

Lung diseases are among the serious health problems. One-sixth
of all deaths in the world are caused by lung diseases. Infectious
diseases such as bronchitis or pneumonia are common in the lungs. Bacteria
are usually causative agents of these infections, but viruses or fungi can also
cause infections in the lungs. Apart from infections, chronic obstructive
lung diseases (chronic asthma and bronchitis) and lung cancers are important
health problems. Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases of the bronchi; It
occurs as a result of the tendency to contract in response to stimuli such as
cold, cigarette smoke, dust, or effort.

Kidney diseases

Major kidney diseases include acute or chronic renal
failure, kidney stones, infections, tumors, and cysts. Kidney infections
take names such as glomerulonephritis and pyelonephritis, depending on the
region involved in the kidney. Kidney disease can be detected by changes
in urine. Changes in color, transparency and amount of urine can be
seen. For example; Turbid urine is an indication of additional
protein excretion from inflammation of the kidneys. Sudden high blood pressure,
edema, headache and blurred vision are symptoms of kidney failure.

Anemia and other blood diseases

Anemia is a disease that occurs as a result of deficiency
in red blood cells. Red blood cells are the cells responsible for
transporting oxygen from the lungs to tissues. The most common cause of
anemia is iron deficiency. But anemia; Vitamin B12 can occur for many
reasons such as folic acid deficiency, bleeding, kidney diseases, cancers, and
bone marrow diseases. Other blood diseases include benign diseases such as
bleeding and coagulation disorders, as well as malignant diseases such as
leukemia and lymphomas. These diseases are generally called hematological
diseases and they are examined and treated in the internal medicine department.

Rheumatic diseases

Rheumatism is a collective term for various diseases of
the musculoskeletal system that are not caused by injuries or tumors and are
manifested by pain. There are 400 different rheumatic diseases known
today. In addition to bones, joints, joint capsules, tendons or muscles,
almost all organs can be affected by rheumatic diseases. Because the
connective tissue structures retained in rheumatism are found almost everywhere
in the body. Rheumatic diseases progress with regional symptoms such as
pain, swelling, redness, limitation of movement and stiffness in the joints. In
addition, extra-articular symptoms such as fever, weakness, weight loss, skin
rash, dry mouth or eyes are also seen.

Musculoskeletal system diseases

Musculoskeletal diseases, also called degenerative
rheumatic diseases, are diseases that occur mainly due to wear and tear and
partly due to aging. In these diseases, unlike rheumatic diseases, the
main confirmatory inflammation is not. Diseases such as osteoarthritis,
osteoporosis, tennis elbow, joint burs irritation, muscle cramps and strains
are included in this group.

General Health Check Up



Kidney Diseases

Liver Diseases

Digestive System Diseases (Ulcer, Reflux, Gastritis,
Colitis Etc.)

Blood Diseases (Anemia Etc.)

Fever Diseases

Rheumatic Diseases

Aging and Aging Related Diseases

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