We provide professional support in Radiation Oncology.
The radiation oncology department is the unit where patients diagnosed with cancer
are treated with special devices that produce high energy radiation.
The biggest problem encountered in cancer treatment is
that not only cancer cells but also healthy tissues are affected during
treatment. With today’s modern technology devices, this distinction can be made
very clear, and side effects can be minimized.
Radiation oncology is a clinical medicine branch devoted
to the treatment of both malignant and benign tumors with ionizing radiation.
For this reason, there are many treatment techniques used and the doctor
chooses one of these methods according to personal factors and characteristics
of the disease.
3D CRT is an advanced technique that involves the use of
imaging technologies to create three-dimensional images of a patient’s tumor
and nearby organs and tissues. Using this detailed information, the doctor can
develop a highly specific plan to deliver a concentrated dose of radiation to
the tumor. Consequently, a higher and more effective dose of radiation can be
delivered directly to cancerous cells. At the same time, the amount of
radiation received by surrounding healthy tissues can be significantly reduced.
3D-CRT is generally used in the following types of cancer;
Head and neck cancer
IMRT is a type of cancer treatment that uses advanced
computer programs to calculate radiation and deliver it from different angles
directly to cancer cells. It enables people with cancer to receive higher, more
effective doses of radiation while limiting the damage to surrounding healthy
tissues and organs. Thus, the success rate of the treatment increases, and the
possibility of side effects decreases.
IMRT is often used to treat prostate cancer, head and
neck cancers, lung cancer, brain cancer, gastrointestinal cancers, and breast
cancer because these tumors tend to be located close to critical organs and
tissues in the body. It can also be used to treat lymphoma, sarcoma,
gynecological cancers, and pediatric cancers.
VMAT is a new radiation therapy technique that
continuously delivers a dose of radiation as the therapy machine rotates. This
technique accurately shapes the radiation dose to the tumor while minimizing
the dose of the organs surrounding the tumor. The VMAT procedure usually takes
about 20 minutes, similar to the 3D-CRT procedure, and uses the same type of
radiation as other radiotherapy treatments. VMAT is also preferred in the
treatment of tumors in critical areas such as IMRT.
IGRT is the technique of using imaging to improve the
accuracy and efficiency of treatment during radiation therapy. IGRT is used to
treat tumors in moving parts of the body, such as the lungs. Radiation therapy
machines are equipped with imaging technology to allow the doctor to view the
tumor before and during treatment. By comparing these images with reference
images taken during the simulation, the patient’s position and radiation beams
can be adjusted to target the radiation dose more precisely to the tumor.
SRS is a non-surgical radiation therapy used to treat
functional abnormalities and small tumors of the brain. Fewer doses of
radiation can be given than conventional therapy, which can help protect
healthy tissue. SRS is currently used in the treatment of malignant or benign
small to medium-sized tumors in the body. Common disease areas treated with SRS
head and neck
SBRT is a cancer treatment that delivers extremely
sensitive, and very intense doses of radiation to cancer cells while minimizing
the damage to healthy tissue. SBRT involves the use of advanced image guidance,
which determines the exact three-dimensional position of a tumor so that the
radiation can be delivered to cancer cells more precisely.
SBRT is often used to treat small, early-stage lung
cancer and pancreatic cancer, or cancers that have spread to the lung, liver,
adrenal gland, or spine.
Total body irradiation (TBI) is a special
radiotherapeutic technique that uses mega-voltage photon beams to deliver one
specialized dose to the patient’s entire body. Such wide-field techniques
include whole-body irradiation, half body irradiation, and total node
irradiation. TBI is often used as part of a cytoreductive preparation regimen
before bone marrow transplantation.
Half body irradiation (HBI) has the advantage of treating
many areas at the same time and is used to prevent or delay further development
of the disease. HBI has a valid pain-relieving effect and HBI significantly
reduces pain especially in patients with prostate and breast cancer. However,
since it is applied to a large area it may affect the surrounding healthy
Cancers are named according to the area where they
started and the type of cell from which they are made, even if they spread to
other parts of the body. Carcinoma is cancer that begins in the skin or tissues
surrounding other organs. Sarcoma is a cancer of connective tissues such as
bones, muscles, cartilage, and blood vessels. Leukemia is a bone marrow cancer
that forms blood cells. Lymphoma and myeloma are cancers of the immune system.
Cancer types treated in our hospital;
Radiotherapy is the destruction of diseased cells by
irradiating with ionizing radiation. It is also called radiation therapy.
Radiotherapy treatment can rarely be used in non-cancer diseases. High-dose
radiation can kill cancer cells or prevent them from dividing and multiplying.
With modern radiotherapy devices and advanced radiotherapy techniques used in
recent years, high dose radiation was given to the tumoral tissue in the
treatment of radiotherapy, while a high level of protection of healthy tissues
was achieved and side effects were minimized. Today, radiotherapy is applied
safely and successfully with advanced technological devices.
The radiation therapy process is customized for patients,
depending on patients’ needs and the type of cancer. Generally, radiotherapy
has 6 basic steps.
The patient is evaluated. The patient’s blood tests,
PET-CT, MR imaging, and pathology reports are examined.
As a result of necessary examinations and medical
evaluation, the appropriate radiotherapy treatment, technique, and duration are
determined for the patient.
Preparatory tomography is performed before the treatment
with the fixation apparatus suitable for the area to be treated and the
treatment technique to be applied.
Identification of the patient and intact tissues are made
by fusion on the tomography of the patient and, if necessary, images such as
PET-CT, MRI, angiography.
After the patient and healthy tissues are identified,
technical calculations such as the dose and duration of the treatment to be
applied to the patient are made by the medical physicist in advanced computer
Depending on the type, localization, and treatment
technique used, the treatment process may vary between 1 and 8 weeks.