We provide professional support in Cornea Transplant.
Our eyeball consists of: cornea, the foremost
transparent layer of the eyeballs; the anterior chamber located behind the
cornea, in which the aqueous humor is found; the iris and the pupil forming the
rear border of the anterior chamber; the lens located in a capsule in the posterior
chamber; the fluid, called vitreous humor, filling the eye globe in the
posterior chamber; and the optic disc, the optic nerve and the retina at the
rearmost part of the eyeballs. The white part seen from the outside of the eye
is called sclera.
The cornea – the foremost transparent layer of the eye
– has two principal functions: focusing the light ray to the retina through the
optic axis and protecting the eye against environmental factors. If the smooth
dome structure or the transparency is lost due to a reason whatsoever, it
cannot properly focus the light, resulting in visual disorders. Keratoconus is
the general term to imply any disorder in watch glass or dome shape of the
Corneal transplantation refers removal of a part of or
the whole cornea and placement of a health cornea taken from a cadaver donor.
Keratoplasty is the medical term used to refer this procedure.
Why is this procedure done?
The cornea is the completely transparent tissue of the
eye. If the transparency is lost and/or the morphological appearance – watch
glass or dome – changes (abnormal convexity or interior collapse) due to
injury, scar formation or edema, the cornea cannot properly focus the light.
Corneal transplantation is one of treatment options
for this wide array of corneal disorders.
Corneal transplantation or keratoplasty refers
surgical removal of the cornea that fails to fulfill the functioning of vision
followed by transferring a healthy cornea that is taken from a cadaver donor.
Healthy corneas are removed from cadavers, who donate tissues and organs, and
they are stored in eye banks. Eye banks evaluate all donor corneas for all
known contagious diseases and the disease-free corneas are stored in special
solutions for a particular storage period. Hospitals authorized and licensed
for corneal transplantation request donor cornea from eye banks for patients
who require corneal transplantation. On the contrary to other tissue and organ
transplantations, blood type compatibility does not apply to corneal transplantation,
as the cornea has no blood vessel.
Corneal transplantation is a treatment option for
diseases listed below:
Although complication rate is usually for corneal
transplantation, the possible risks of the keratoplasty are listed below;
Although all possible measures that modern medicine
allows are taken to prevent occurrence of risks, it is no means possible to
warrant that the risks will be completely eliminated.
Our specialists will employ all practices to minimize
the risk of complications and our ophthalmologists will preoperatively inform
you about the risks listed above and all other potential complications and will
address all your concerns.
Your ophthalmologist will comprehensively examine your
eye from all aspects. At this stage, a comprehensive examination is made to
determine whether the corneal disease is associated by other eye disorders or
not. Such evaluations aim the best postoperative visual outcomes.
After it is verified that the surgery does not pose
risk, you will be asked to quit smoking, if you are a smoker, and to stop
taking certain medications that increase risk of bleeding. All other prescribed
and over-the-counter medications, herbal products and supplements will also be
questioned and you will be informed to continue or stop taking them.
You may need to use antibiotic eye drops or tablets
before and after the surgery in order to eliminate the risk of postoperative
You will also be instructed to stop eating and
drinking at a particular time before the surgery and you should strictly follow
this instruction in order to undergo the surgery at the scheduled date.
Moreover, it is reasonable to plan discharge,
post-discharge accommodation and travel at this phase in order to manage
postoperative period better.
Surgery and early postoperative period
Corneal transplant surgery is usually carried out
under local anesthesia. After local anesthetic agent is administered to numb
the eye and the periocular area, you will be intravenously administered a
sedative agent to calm down and relax. If your doctor deems necessary in the
light of preoperative data, the surgery can also be carried out under general
Full thickness or partial thickness corneal transplant
surgery is performed according to the plan made by your doctor according to
results of the preoperative examinations.
In the full thickness corneal transplantation, also
called penetrating keratoplasty, the central part of the corneal dome is
removed in the light of the corneal measurements made by your doctor. The donor
cornea is placed on this opening and stitched to the rest native cornea.
In the partial thickness corneal transplantation, the
outermost or the innermost layer of the recipient cornea is striped and
replaced by the donor corneal graft. This technique is referred to as lamellar
Your doctor will plan and decide the best technique
for your corneal disorder and the amount of the cornea to be cut in the light
of the preoperative examinations and you will be preoperatively informed.
After your cornea is removed and the donor cornea is
stitched, your eye will be closed by bandage or bandage plus eye shield.
You may feel itching, irritation, pain, tenderness and
mild discomfort in the early postoperative period. Such symptoms will
spontaneously disappear without need to a treatment. If necessary, you will be
prescribed medications in order to manage those symptoms.
Your doctor may ask you to use antibiotics,
anti-inflammatory tablets and eye drops as a precaution. You should closely
follow all advices of your doctor in order to prevent or minimize postoperative
You should necessarily keep your eyes clean, avoid
rubbing and/or scratching your eyes and follow wound care advices of your
doctor or present for wound dressing visits after the surgery.
Therefore, you should see your doctor at follow-up
visits that will be informed to you and you should also be ready to visit your
doctor at particular intervals.
Corneal transplantation improves visual accuracy in
Rejection of the donor cornea is the major problem
that requires attention after a corneal transplant surgery.
You should not ignore visiting your doctor at regular
intervals in order to monitor the rejection of the cornea and treat visual
disorders that may occur after the transplant surgery.