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Ear, nose and throat diseases

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We provide professional support in Ear, nose and throat diseases.


Ear, nose and throat diseases

In Kolan Hospital Group Ear Nose Throat Department; Modern
and high-tech methods are used for the diagnosis and surgical treatment of
diseases of the thyroid and parathyroid gland and all salivary glands,
anomalies of the head and neck structures, as well as diseases of the ears,
nose and sinus cavities, lips and oral cavity, nasal, pharynx and laryngeal
diseases. .

Endoscopic and microscopic examination methods are used in
Otorhinolaryngology polyclinic examinations, and examinations for the diagnosis
of hearing and balance system diseases are carried out in the audiology
laboratories within the department.

Diseases and treatments
served in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology;

Allergic rhinitis

Sudden hearing loss


Ear infections (outer, middle and inner ear)


Adenoid enlargement

Odor and taste disorders

Laryngo pharyngeal reflux


Meniere’s Disease

Apnea (Obstructive sleep apnea) (Respiratory arrest during
sleep due to obstructive reasons)

Hearing impairment

Voice Diseases


Motion sickness (motion sickness)

Salivary gland cancer

Vestibular neuritis (Balance nerve inflammation)

Cancer (mouth, oral cavity, lips, pharynx (pharynx), larynx
(nasopharynx), sinus, salivary gland, thyroid,)


Otology / Neurootology

Medical and surgical treatment of ear diseases including
congenital anomalies of the outer, middle and inner ear, infectious and
traumatic diseases and cancers, disorders related to the nerve pathways
affecting hearing and balance.

Chronic middle ear diseases surgery (repair of ear canal
holes, ear bone repair, cholesteatoma surgery),

Medical and surgical treatment of facial nerve palsy,

Medical and surgical treatment of Meniere’s Disease,

Surgical treatment of ear bone calcification (otosclerosis),

Surgical treatment of auricle, external auditory canal,
middle ear tumors

Wearing a hearing aid that can be surgically placed on the

Cochlear implant (bionic ear) application.


Tonsil and adenoid surgery.

Inserting a tube into the eardrum.

Surgical treatment of congenital neck masses.

and Neck Area

Surgical treatment of lip cancers.

Surgery of oral cavity, tongue and tonsil tumors.

Surgical treatment of nasal, pharyngeal and laryngeal

Surgery of the submandibular and anterior ear (parotid)
salivary glands.

Surgical treatment of facial skin and bones, sinus cancers.

Repair of facial bone fractures (nose and jaw fractures).

Dissection surgeries to clean the neck lymph nodes.

and Surgical Treatment of Nose and Sinus Cavities (Rhinology)

Septum deviation (septoplasty) surgery.

Radiofrequency reduction of the intranasal meat (concha).

Surgical treatment of nasal polyps, Functional Endoscopic
Sinus Surgery (FESS).

and Surgical Treatment of Voice Disorders (Laryngology)

Surgical treatment of vocal cord nodules and polyps.

Medical and surgical treatment of vocal cord paralysis-related


Diagnosis (Allergy Tests) and Treatment of Allergic Diseases


In the Kolan Hospital Group Department, where the hearing
system is evaluated and various treatments and treatments are performed,
audiologists who have received special training on this subject provide

Procedures in the
Audiology Department;

Pure Tone Audiometry and Tympanometric Measurements

Sound generators that are used to evaluate peripheral hearing
and can produce pure sounds are called audiometers. The test results
created using this device are evaluated by specialist otolaryngologists.

Electronystagmography (ENG, VNG) and Balance Tests

ENG is based on recording the eye movements (nystagmus)
caused by the corneoretinal potential difference by placing electrodes around
the eyeball.

ABR / BERA (Auditory Brainstem Response)

It is the neuroelectric activity of the auditory system that
occurs as a response to specific auditory stimulus.

ABR / BERA test; In patients with cooperation difficulties
(such as babies, children and mentally disabled people)

In obtaining information about objective hearing thresholds,

As differential diagnosis in the presence of lesion,

Detecting hearing loss in nonorganic hearing losses

It is used in the evaluation of coma stages and brain death.

Vestibular Rehabilitation

Otoacoustic Emission Test

Newborn Hearing Screening

These tests are noninvasive, objective and physiological
measurements that screen newborns using national newborn hearing screening
programs, OAE (Otoacoustic emission) and ABR.


Facial Plastic and Aesthetic Surgery


Nose Aesthetics

Rhinoplasty is a nose reshaping and restructuring surgery. The
aim is to make the nose functionally and aesthetically better. At the same
time, if there are bony curvatures (deviation) in the middle part of the nose
that prevent breathing, it is possible to correct these curvatures with
rhinoplasty surgery.

The purpose of nose aesthetics is to make the most suitable
nose for your face. Since this surgery will be performed on the existing
nose, the nose owned also affects the success of the operation. In other
words, the thickness of your skin, the thinness and form of the existing
cartilages, your wound healing and your previous nasal surgery determine the
success rate. The aim is not to make a nose that is incompatible with your
face. For this reason, making the best nose alone will not solve the
problems. Making the most suitable nose for your face is considered to be
the most successful result. It is therefore wrong to make a request by
sampling another person’s nose. If a beautiful nose that does not give the
impression of being operated on and a better breathing than before the
operation is achieved, the surgery has been successful.

Rhinoplasty surgeries are the most performed plastic surgery
operations in the world. The duration of the operation usually varies
between two hours and five hours depending on the scope of the procedure to be
performed. If there is an intervention in the nasal bone after surgery,
bruising and swelling may occur, but it is much less common than the previous
surgical techniques. At the end of the operation, silicone pads are placed
inside the nose, which allow some breathing, and a small plaster and patches
are applied to the outside of the nose.

After the operation, it is usually not painful as feared. This
period will be very comfortable with simple painkillers. Two days later,
the nasal silicone pads are emptied and you’re breathing returns to normal. This
tampon removal procedure is a much less painful procedure than the old
classical cloth tampons removal procedure and takes a very short time.

Ear Lobe Aesthetics

With otoplasty surgery, the prominent auricle, which is also
called prominent ear among the people, can be corrected, as well as the auricle
and earlobe that have not developed due to congenital or trauma-like reasons or
whose appearance is damaged. There is usually no serious pain after the
operation; a mild pain can be expected that can be controlled with
painkillers. Headband is applied day and night for a week; for the
next few weeks, it is desirable to wear the headband only at night. Children
can start school after a week, while adults can return to work sooner.

Endoscopic Sinus Surgery

The spaces filled with air around the nose, on the forehead,
behind the eyeball, and in the upper jaw bone are called sinuses. Approximately
half a liter of secretion per day occurs in the sinuses. If the air entry
and exit into the sinus is impaired (cold, flu, nasal bone curvature, polyps,
adenoid, etc.), microbes begin to reproduce and multiply. Thus, the sinus
mucosa becomes inflamed. This is what we call “acute sinusitis”. If
the cause disappears, the sinus begins to vent and regain its health. Otherwise,
if the event continues and this process lasts up to 3 months, “chronic
sinusitis” occurs. While the treatment is easy and short in acute
sinusitis, treatment is difficult in chronic sinusitis and surgical methods are
often required.

Sinusitis Symptoms

There may be nasal congestion, runny nose, weakness, mild
fever, pain and tenderness in the forehead, behind the eyes, and upper jaw. In
the case of a cold, the runny nose turns yellow-green, acute sinusitis should
be suspected. Sinusitis can be diagnosed by the history of the disease and
endoscopic examination. But the final diagnosis is made by radiological
examinations. Computed tomography is the best diagnostic method when
necessary, as direct radiographs do not contribute much to the diagnosis. Sinus
tomography should not be used too much except chronic sinusitis.

Sinusitis Treatment

Acute sinusitis often responds to antibiotic therapy. Surgical
intervention is usually required for chronic sinusitis. Functional
Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS) is the most effective surgical method in the
treatment of sinusitis. The results are very successful with this surgical
method, which is performed by experienced physicians in patients who need
surgery. In chronic sinusitis, usually after 2-3 weeks of antibiotic
treatment, tomography is performed and surgery is decided. Surgery is
preferably performed under general anesthesia. After the surgery, the
inside of the nose should be cleaned and the recommendations of the physician
should be followed.

Nasal Polyps

Nasal polyps are mucous bubbles that develop due to chronic
inflammatory diseases of the membrane (mucosa) lining the nose and sinuses. They
tend to combine with each other and form a bunch of grapes with a soft
consistency. Sometimes they can grow large enough to hang out of the nose. They
are more common in men. Nasal congestion is the most common complaint. There
may be sneezing, itching, nasal and nasal discharge. Snoring and sleep
apnea can be seen. Odor and taste disturbances may occur. The
diagnosis can be easily seen by direct or endoscopic examination. It is
also possible to view polyps in the sinuses on tomography. The most
effective drug for nasal polyps is cortisone. If relief cannot be achieved
with cortisone, surgical treatment is planned.


Middle and Inner Ear Surgery


Serous Otitis Media
(Serous otitis, Otitis Media with effusion)

The middle ear cavity is connected by a channel called the
eustachian canal, the nasal cavity, which is the space where the nasal cavity
connects at the back. Some muscles, which are the extensions of swallowing
and chewing muscles, open the entrance of the eustachian tube to the nasal
passage every 3-4 swallowing, and the accumulated secretions and oxygenated air
in the middle ear enters the nasal passage, while the clean air from the nose
enters the middle ear. After this passage of air and fluid, the eustachian
channel closes automatically. In children, this channel is not fully
developed. Therefore, middle ear infections are more common in children. In
addition, the closure of the eustachian duct by the large nasal flesh, which is
also common in children, causes the air passage to stop. When air cannot
pass into the middle ear cavity for a long time, the middle ear cavity can be
completely filled with a fluid secreted from the tissues there. This type
of fluid accumulation in the middle ear cavity, where air should normally be
present, is called “serous otitis”. Serous otitis usually does
not cause any symptoms other than a mild hearing loss.

In the diagnosis, firstly, the image of the eardrum in
physical examination gives important information. Tympanometry tests that
measure hearing and middle ear pressure are helpful in confirming the
diagnosis. After eliminating the cause in adults, the ear must be
intervened. If the cause of adenoid in children, serous otitis is a
sufficient reason for the removal of adenoid. After the tympanogram values
​​are obtained in a child with serous otitis media, it can be decided to apply
a tube to the eardrum to patients who do not respond to drug treatment by
comparing them with ear examination and tympanogram values ​​after 20 days of
antibiotic treatment (repeating 2 or 3 times if necessary).

Chronic Otitis Media

It is the name given to the surgery performed to eliminate the chronic
disease in the middle ear of patients with chronic otitis media (chronic otitis
media), in which the ear canal hole is closed, the damage to the ear ossicles
is corrected and repaired. There are several subtypes of this surgery.


It is just repairing the hole in the eardrum.


The membrane is solid. Only the damage to the ear
ossicles is repaired to correct hearing.


Cells (mastoid cells) in the bone behind the ear are cleaned.

It is the formation of “cholestectomy”, which is a
bright white mass formed by the cells of the outer ear canal skin or outer
layer of the eardrum, shed in the air spaces in the middle ear or ear bone in
patients with chronic middle ear disease. The important feature of these
masses is that they grow in a spiral like an onion membrane, and as they grow,
they cause bone resorption by pressing on the bone parts. What causes the
most complications in chronic middle ear infections, these cholesteatomas
destroy everything that comes in front of them by melting them. It causes
the nerve to be damaged by melting the facial nerve canal. Inflammation in
the middle ear spreads to the brain or cerebellum, causing meningitis and brain
abscess. Therefore, mastoidectomy is mandatory for the chronic middle ear
patient with cholesteatoma.

(Calcification in Middle Ear Ossicles)

Otosclerosis is the uncontrolled calcification of the bone
capsule surrounding the inner ear. Since this calcification focus is
mostly formed in the bone capsule part where the stapes is adjacent to the
inner ear, the stapes ossicle is most affected by this calcification. Stapes
ossicular movements are impaired and even remain completely immobile. It
cannot transmit sound waves to inner ear fluids. Thus, the stage of
transmission of sound to the inner ear is interrupted. It creates ringing
in the affected ear and hearing loss that increases over time. The
majority of the patients are women between the ages of 20-40. There is
often someone in the family with hearing loss (genetic transmission). In
addition, hearing threshold test, tympanogram and reflex test among
audiological tests support the diagnosis. The definitive diagnosis is made
only by surgery. In other words, the definitive diagnosis and treatment of
otosclerosis is surgery. When the eardrum is lifted and stirrup bone
immobility and calcification focus are seen, the diagnosis is definite. The
most common surgical method is the surgery to remove the stapes ossicle, which
is immobilized due to calcification, and to replace it with a prosthesis

Meniere’s disease

Our inner ear is one of the body’s most complex, sensitive
and most perfect organs. It consists of a bone capsule in which fluid and
hearing-balance organs, which we call snail and semicircular canals. There
are hearing organs and cells in the cochlea, and the balance organ and cells
within the semicircular canals. Two different types of fluids are made
from the cerebrospinal fluid and blood vessels into the snail and semicircular
canals. These fluids are kept separate from each other by bone and
membrane compartments. The production and excretion of these fluids is in
a balance. In Meniere’s disease, there is an overproduction and / or less
excretion of fluid from the veins. In Meniere’s crisis, this fluid, which
contains both the balance and the hearing organ, increases and inflates the
membrane chamber. Therefore, the feeling of pressure and fullness in the
ear, which is a symptom of Meniere’s crisis, develops accordingly. After a
while, the membrane chamber ruptures and the two separate liquids mix. These
fluids, which are different from each other, cause dizziness attack and hearing
loss by poisoning each other. Ear humming, nausea, and vomiting often
accompany the symptoms.

Surgical Treatment of
Meniere’s disease

Operations differ in Meniere’s disease depending on the level
of hearing. Patients with poor hearing and who suffer from vertigo
(dizziness) can undergo drainage surgery that preserves their hearing. Patients
who have lost their hearing and suffer from dizziness can undergo surgeries
that destroy and disable the inner ear.

In-Ear Injection

In recent years, intratympanic (passing through the eardrum
and directly reaching the middle ear) injection has become more common. The
biggest advantage of intratympanic injection is that the drug used for
treatment is given only to the middle ear, so it has no systemic side effects.

Intratympanic injection
can be used in the following situations:

Sudden hearing losses: These are hearing losses that start
suddenly (less than 3 days) and can be accompanied by tinnitus, imbalance and
dizziness. The only known effective treatment is cortisone. It has
been proven by studies that it is as effective as orally when administered
intratympanically. Early treatment (first 72 hours) is very important in
sudden hearing loss. The sooner the treatment is started, the more
promising the result will be. It is possible to get results with
intratympanic injection even in cases where treatment is delayed (if it has
been longer than 1 month).

Meniere’s disease: Intratympanic gentamicin can be used for
dizziness that cannot be controlled with drugs.

Tinnitus (Tinnitus): Intratympanic injections can be applied
for tinnitus that cannot be controlled with drugs.


Head – Neck Cancer Surgery


Thyroid Cancers

Swallow Cancers

Intraoral Cancers

Salivary Gland Cancers

Laryngeal Cancer

Neck Dissection

There are membranes (fascia) covering muscles, veins and organs such as
esophagus, pharynx and thyroid in the neck. There are lymph vessels and
lymph nodes in the spaces above and below these membranes. Lymph nodes are
places where foreign cells and microbes fight. All external and internal
organs in the head and neck have a network of lymph vessels leading to these
lymph nodes. Therefore, inflammation of the lymph nodes from a pimple on
the face, tonsillitis and lymph nodes, can also cause the growth of lymph nodes
by forming cancer tissue by going to these lymph nodes and winning the fight

When tumors in the head and neck region spread to the lymph nodes in the neck,
the operation performed to clean these lymph nodes and lymph channels is called
neck dissection.


Snoring and Sleep Apnea Surgery

The sleep period covers the period of the daily rhythm, which
we call night, in which all activities of the body slow down and decrease. Towards
the evening, when the body gets tired, its bodily functions begin to decline
and become ready for sleep that will begin a few hours later. The sleep
period is the period when tired and worn tissues are regenerated and repaired. Therefore,
adequate breathing and oxygen is needed.

Sleep apnea is when breathing stops for at least 10 seconds
while asleep and repeats 5 or more times per hour. This is followed by a
short-term awakening period (arousal), which the patient cannot notice. Sleep
that passes with sleeping and waking up causes the body to wake up tired
without rest.

Lack of oxygen in the period of respiratory arrest affects
the whole organism, especially the brain. Due to the excessive work of the
respiratory muscles, the patient wakes up both tired and in a poor
concentration. Daily activity quality decreases. The patient falls
asleep whenever possible. Failure, unhappiness, boredom and tendency to
accidents increase due to decreased ability to make and analyze decisions, and
lack of concentration. If there are cardiovascular diseases, high blood
pressure, lung diseases, it becomes worse, otherwise the ground for them begins
to form.

Snoring is performing breathing loudly or loudly during
sleep. There is usually apnea with it. Whether it is snoring or
apnea, the cause is a narrowing or congestion in any part of the path where
breath air enters and leaves. The most important reason for this
congestion is the nose. The most common cause of nasal congestion is the
curvature of the bone and cartilage structure (septum deviation) that divides
the nasal cavity into two. In cases of the throat and palate (such as
small tongue prolapse), they can cause apnea and snoring. Thickening of
the neck area and tongue due to excessive weight gain may also cause snoring.

In the first stage, a good ear nose throat examination is
mandatory. Polysomnography (sleep test) is the most important diagnostic
method in which the respiratory heart, vascular and brain functions are
evaluated and the average number of breaths per hour is determined by the
patient is hospitalized and put to sleep in a clinical environment for one

The treatment of apnea and snoring is the elimination of what is causing the
blockage. Medical or surgical methods are used for this. The first
precautions to be tried before the surgery and the use of other respiratory
support devices are to lose weight, to quit smoking and alcohol that increase
apnea and snoring.

Septum surgeries, radiofrequency or surgical reduction of the
turbinates, removal of nasal concha, opening of nasal adhesions, nasal wing
correction surgeries, nasal surgery, surgical interventions for benign or
malignant tumors, radiofrequency application to the soft palate or surgical
reduction, removal of tonsils, tongue root degrading interventions are methods
used in the treatment of snoring and apnea.


Cochlear Implant (Bionic Ear) Application

The cochlear implant is an electronic device worn by people
with profound hearing loss and is often referred to as “bionic ear”.

The cochlear implant is an electronic device surgically
implanted in the inner ear, which allows people with severe hearing loss to
regain their hearing due to damage to the hearing cells in the cochlea (snail)
in the inner ear. A hearing close to natural hearing can be achieved with
a cochlear implant.

Cochlear Implant Results

The earlier the cochlear implant is inserted, the more
promising the results. If the cochlear implant is inserted at the age when
the child starts to learn to speak (1-3 years old), the results are quite
successful. Hearing and speaking is almost as good as normal children.

Bone Anchored Hearing
Device Application

Bone Conduction Implant (Bone Anchored
Hearing Device)

The implant is placed under the skin. It stimulates the
inner ear directly without using the outer and middle ear. It is also an
aesthetically attractive solution. Since the implant is completely under
the skin, it is not visible from the outside. The sound processor, on the
other hand, is very small and can be used inconspicuously by being worn under
the hair.


Medical and Surgical Treatment of Voice Disorders

Benign Tumors of the Vocal

Audio Wire Poly

It is a lesion that usually develops following an acute vocal
trauma (such as yelling) and bleeding under the vocal cord epithelium. It
is almost always one-sided. It is mostly seen in middle-aged men. It
creates hoarseness as a complaint. Its treatment is surgical excision.

Vocal Wire Node

It is a bilateral thickening that develops as a result of
long-term misuse of the voice, typically at the 1/3 anterior-2/3 posterior
junction where the vocal cords rub against each other the most. It is also
called singer nodule. It is more common in occupational groups who use
their voices professionally (such as teacher, vocal artist, politician,
marketperson). It creates hoarseness as a complaint. Its treatment is
primarily speech therapy. In speech therapy, the person is trained in the
correct use of vocal cords and breathing techniques. Advanced nodules that
do not respond to voice therapy are surgically removed.

Contact Granuloma and Intubation Granuloma

Contact granuloma is seen in men, usually in middle age. It
mostly depends on straining the vocal cords for a long time and thus
corresponds to the vocal cord nodule in women. Intubation granuloma, on
the other hand, occurs a few weeks after inserting a tube into the trachea
during a general anesthetic. It creates hoarseness as a complaint. Its
treatment is primarily speech therapy. Surgical excision is performed in
fibrotic nodules that do not respond to voice therapy.

Vocal cord cysts

These thin-walled cysts with serous or mucous contents,
almost all of them are located just below the vocal cord mucosa, rarely they
settle deep inside the vocal cord muscles. The occlusion of the mouths of
the microscopic glands on the surface of the vocal cords is primarily
responsible for the development. It creates hoarseness as a complaint. Its
treatment is surgical removal of the cysts.

Vocal cord papilloma and juvenile papilloma (papillomatosis)

Human Papilloma Virus types 6 and 11 are thought to be
responsible for the development of papillomas. It is mostly seen in middle
age men. It can turn into laryngeal cancer at rates of up to 20%. It
causes hoarseness. Surgical procedures are applied to improve the quality
of the voice and to open the respiratory tract. The most effective
treatment method is to burn the papilloma mass with CO2 laser under general
anesthesia. In addition, the benefits of systemic interferon therapy have
been reported.


Leukoplakia (whitish, thickened mucosa areas), hyperkeratoses
(coarsening and thickening of the mucosa varying from gray to red) are more
common in smokers and chronic laryngitis. It is difficult to distinguish
it from cancer with its appearance on physical examination, so it must be
surgically removed and pathological examination should be performed. Even
if cancer does not occur as a result of the pathology, these patients should be
followed closely due to the high risk of developing laryngeal cancer.

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