We provide professional support in Microbiology.
Microbiology is the name given to the branch of science
that studies microbes and organisms of “micro”
size. Microbiology bacteria, viruses, algae etc. It includes the
study of living things.
When microorganism is mentioned, bacteria, viruses, protozoa, fungi and
primitive algae are understood. The branches in which the microbiology
branch is beneficial are medicine, agriculture and industry.
Although it is only one of the numerous branches of biology, we can say that it
forms the basis of biology. The branch of science that studies creatures
that are too small to be seen with the naked eye, also called
“microbes”. When microorganism is mentioned, bacteria, viruses,
protozoa, fungi and primitive algae are understood. The branches in which
the microbiology branch is beneficial are medicine, agriculture and industry.
Although microorganisms were discovered after the invention of the microscope,
Pasteur is considered the father of microbiology. Another major discovery
after Pasteur’s discovery of the rabies vaccine is that it revealed that some
yeast and bacteria in the airless environment give off alcohol as the
respiratory end product.
Microorganisms are creatures that can only be seen with a microscope. These
creatures live almost everywhere you can think of. They inhabit almost
every part of the earth, from the constantly circulating atmosphere to the
depths of the earth, from the inside of the Antarctic glaciers to the geyser
Microorganisms are widely used in medicine, industry, agriculture and food
industry. For example, the transformation of milk into yoghurt and cheese is
done by bacteria. Another type of bacteria is used in some garbage
collection centers to produce methane gas.
The most known microorganisms are “Bacteria”. Other known ones are
algae, unicellular algae, freshwater microorganisms, yeast and
viruses. Let’s examine them one by one.
bacteria are taxonomically classified, they are
included in the “Prokaryote” class.
The bodies of living beings in the prokaryote
class consist of only one cell, and there are no organelles (mitochondria,
ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, etc.) in the cell that make up their bodies,
and they also do not have a nucleus (nucleus) in which their DNA is preserved.
Living things in the class of eukaryotes
(Eucaryota) have both intracellular organelles and a wide variety of species
from single-celled organisms (algae, yeast, archae, etc.) to multicellular
organisms (such as cats, rabbits, etc.).
Apart from this, bacteria are classified
according to the tolerance they show against the conditions of the environment
they are in. For example, bacteria that tolerate acidic environments or live in
very hot or very cold environments.
Bacteria have a very wide habitat. They live in
the glaciers at 0 degrees in Anartika, even in the wells called
“Geyser” and spraying boiling water at 100 degrees. The ability to
survive in such low cold and such high temperatures, protective “Shield
enzymes in their bodies.” It is achieved with “.
These bacteria live in environments deep below
where there is no oxygen. Oxygen gas is like a poison that has a lethal effect
for these bacteria. Therefore, they live in deep places where oxygen cannot
These bacteria, which are used in the industry,
use the materials in the environment to store energy for themselves, provided
that the necessary environmental conditions are provided, and emit methane gas
as the end product of respiration. Thanks to their excellent biochemical
properties, they are used by humans for the production of methane gas in
garbage collection centers.
There are so many species of microorganisms that
only 1% of these species cause disease on humans and other living things. The
remaining 99% of the species live symbiotic or commensally in nature.
Some species of bacteria protect themselves
against bad conditions with shields called “Spore” or
“Cyst”. Bacteria can isolate themselves from the external environment
for centuries with these shields. When the ambient conditions improve, they
break their cysts or spores and activate their intracellular metabolic
A bacterium either takes the DNA left by another
bacterium into the environment or the DNA of a dead and fragmented bacterium
from the cell wall and adds it to its own DNA chain. In this way, it
provides resistance by adding the DNA information of other bacteria to itself.
This characteristic of
bacteria poses a big problem in the medical field. For example, you got sick
and your doctor gave you antibiotics (germicidal) to use at certain periods. If
you do not use this antibiotic properly and disrupt it, you will help bacteria
to exchange DNA between each other in time.
When a bacterium detects an antibiotic, it
produces a type of protein by activating the resistance genes. This protein
protects the bacteria against the antibiotic. The bacterium does not stop
there, and releases a copy of the antibiotic resistance gene into the
environment. it makes itself resistant.
The ability of a bacterium to challenge
antibiotics and drugs with such perfect equipment and to protect itself against
external conditions with the shields it creates for centuries without any
changes, reveals that it is a wonder of creation.